Overall Report

Pamela Goh
42 min readAug 1, 2022

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Initial Topic: Where can Kardashian fans gather to talk about the latest news?

As an avid Karjenner (Kardashian-Jenner, for the uninitiated) fan, I am always searching for places to read snarky posts about (my version of) the royal family. However, most of these forums like Reddit run on user-generated content, which means that I don’t get the latest news piping hot. Depending on how the subreddit is run, I might also not be able to sort posts based on what I’m interested in seeing (eg. only wanting to remove fashion-related posts). As a user-run space, moderators with their own agendas on these forums sometimes affect the news that appears due to rules that they set, so there might be biases at play as well.

Gossipy news sites like The Daily Mail and The Sun aren’t usually considered beacons of journalism (read: biased and over-sensationalised), and they tend to lack the discussion that happens on forums like Reddit. There’s something about gossiping with others about a family that doesn’t know you at all that makes life worth living. These sites also do not cover the Karjenners exclusively, which requires me to sieve through all the other gossip and news articles to find what I’m looking for.

The Karjenners in Italy for Travis Barker and Kourtney Kardashian’s wedding (Stevenson, 2022).

So, I was thinking — why isn’t there a place that aggregates gossip news about the family while also allowing fans to discuss every microcosm of their lives? I’m interested in being able to sort the news by ‘actual’ news (eg. Kourtney and Travis’ wedding in Italy), fashion (what are guests wearing at the wedding?), speculation (is Beyonce at the wedding? Doesn’t she have beef with Kim?), and their TV show, The Kardashians (Did Hulu pay for this wedding? Is it being filmed for next season?).

With the notoriety of the family, I am intrigued to find out if this is a product that similar fans will be interested in. There are a few ways we could do this — Instagram page, podcast, telegram bot, website, and probably more: the possibilities are endless. Perhaps this could be the next Shaderoom?

Research Plan

Research Objective / Challenge Statement

How might we use digital media to create an interactive space for Kardashian fans in order to allow them to discuss and filter the latest news based on their interests while also being able to find a community?

Key Customer Segment

Fans of the Kardashian family (Khloe Kardashian, Kim Kardashian, Kourtney Kardashian, Kris Jenner, Kendall Jenner and Kylie Jenner)

What do we already know?

  1. Fans are active followers of the family on social media
  • Together, they have a reach of 1.365 billion followers on Instagram and 213.3 million followers on Twitter
  • The subreddit of the show has almost 75,000 followers
  • 1.2 million Instagram followers for their TV show, The Kardashians, and they have 3.4 million Instagram followers on their collective official Instagram account
  • #kardashians on Instagram has 2.5 million posts

What are we unsure about?

  1. How casually do they follow the family?
  2. How do they view the family (eg. Worship, snark)?
  3. Why do they like following news on the family?
  4. How long have they been fans of the family?
  5. Do they enjoy reading news about people adjacent to the Kardashians (eg. Partners, ex-partners, family friends etc.)?
  6. What aspects of online communities do they enjoy?
  7. What aspects of online communities do they think are missing from the one they currently engage in?
  8. What social media platforms do they like using?

Whom should we talk to?

  1. Fans of the family
  2. Users of social media / online platforms

What are other relevant data sources?

  1. r/KUWTK subreddit
  2. Kardashiandish.com
  3. Kardashian family’s social media accounts
  4. Gossip news sites such as Pagesix and TMZ

Stakeholder Map

PDF Link for Stakeholder Map

For the potential fan community, the users would include:

  • Avid followers: Those who want to, and do know the ins and outs of the Karjenners’ lives.
  • Casual followers: Those who mostly keep up with big news about the Kardashians, but do not actively seek out information.
  • Long-term fans (or the “OGs”): Those who have followed the Karjenners since the beginning.
  • New fans: Those who have just joined the fandom.

Internal stakeholders would include:

  • Moderators: The people who will be in charge of the community and discussions, to make it a safe space for all. User-centric.
  • News editors/curators: The ones who will be curating the news articles/videos/etc. that will be posted on the platform.
  • Tech support/designers/backend: The ones who will maintain the backend and technical operations of the community.

External stakeholders include:

  • Host site: The platform that we are planning to host all our activities on.
  • The family and their lawyers: As we will be discussing the lives of real people, they will have a stake in how they are being portrayed (i.e. not slander or defamation).

Competitor Analysis

Competitor #1: @kardashianicon on Tiktok

Tiktok profile of @kardashianicon

Key features

  • Largest Kardashian fan account on Tiktok with 1.9 million followers
  • Posts short-form video content taken from their reality shows or appearances
  • Posts 7 clips a day on average
  • Interactivity. There is a comment section for fans to discuss the clips. Tiktok also has the ability for fans to duet or stitch videos so they can interact with the content should they decide to post their own videos or opinions about the topic

Gaps in offering

  • Videos are not always posted in chronological order or the ‘latest’ news. For example, a clip from the first episode of The Kardashians was posted on 28 May 2022 when clips from the latest (7th) episode were posted a day prior.
  • You can only filter the content by clicking on playlists the user has created: “Kravis Wedding”, “Throwbacks”, “House Tour”, “Kylie Jenner”, “Khloe Kardashian”, “North West”, “Kim Kardashian”, “Glow ups”. This leads to bias in searchable content as the user is able to curate playlists based on what they are interested in, as certain family members have not been featured.
  • You are unable to search for videos that you want to see by the creator, as videos do not have titles (only captions) and there is no search button specifically for content under the creator’s profile. Thus, it will be difficult to look for specific news.
The user is able to display/pin up to three videos on their profile.
  • You are also unable to sort the content by popularity, or in reverse chronological (date of posting) order etc. Tiktok only displays 3 pinned posts at maximum and the rest of your videos will be displayed in chronological order.

What you want to emulate

  • The virality of the posts. Due to the algorithm of Tiktok, popular videos can get millions of views — such as this one of Kylie Jenner’s makeup with 7.7 million views.
  • Being able to engage and keep fans’ attention with short video clips/short-form content

Competitor #2: r/KUWTK on Reddit

r/KUWTK’s page on Reddit

Key features

  • Discussion forum for Kardashian fans with 75,600 followers
  • Posts include but are not limited to discussions about their reality TV show, social media updates, fan theories, fashion
  • Anonymous platform — do not have to reveal your name or any personal identifiers if you do not wish to
  • Ability to filter by flair such as “Instagram”, “Discussion”, “Fashion” etc. This allows users who are more interested in certain areas to view the content that they want
Prediction tournament for Kourtney Kardashian and Travis Barker’s wedding
  • Apart from discussion posts with comments, Reddit also allows for interactivity amongst fans with “prediction tournaments” where fans can play games to guess the answers to questions posed by others

Gaps in offering

  • Text-based. Depending on the user, they might not want to read walls of text and would prefer visual content such as videos.
  • User-generated content. As the subreddit depends on its users for content, in a situation where no one picks up on ‘latest’ news or users decide to use another platform, the forum would be left forgotten.
Post is vaguely related to the forum as the user posted a Tiktok that was unrelated to the Kardashians and did not contain any Kardashian content. Instead, it was used to describe the user’s feelings whenever they see the partners of Khloe and Kourtney Kardashians on screen.
  • It is not easy to have moderators up 24/7 and thus there might be gaps in content such as spam, negative comments, or posts unrelated/vaguely related to the Kardashians, such as the one above.

What you want to emulate

  • Moderators in the forum help to make sure that all rules are being adhered to and that it is a safe space for all.
  • Fans having a safe space to discuss not just the latest news or episode but being able to find a community, such as the page’s “Whine Down Weekly” thread where you can discuss anything you want with like-minded fans
  • Anonymity so that fans will feel comfortable enough to speak their mind
  • Being able to filter content based on what the user is interested in viewing

Competitor #3: Kardashiandish.com

Front page of Kardashian Dish on 30 May 2022.

Key features

  • A website that posts about Kardashian news and rumours, including news about the people adjacent to them such as partners/ex-partners, or criticism of them by other celebrities/notable people
  • Fans are able to filter content by family member or partner
  • The search bar also allows fans to search for specific news that they are interested in

Gaps in offering

  • Not a 100% focused on the Kardashians as they do feature news about the royals and other celebrities like Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt
  • Is run by only two people: Diana Nosa, the staff writer, and Natalie Zamora, the head of entertainment content. This might lead to bias as not everything about the family might be reported.
Comment section with only 1 spam comment.
  • Barely any user engagement, so fans do not have a space for discussions. Comment section is ridden with spam.
  • Users might not enjoy reading articles compared to short-form video or photo content

What you want to emulate

  • As a website, it is able to be easily found via Google Search should fans not know where to look for news. This makes it more accessible compared to accounts on social media that you will have to deliberately seek out or find via word of mouth.
Kardashian Dish ranks third on Google when you search for “Kardashian news website”
  • News appears more legitimate as it is curated and written by a staff writer instead of being user-generated. This also means that news posted is more timely too.
  • It is a one-stop-shop for everything that you might want to know about the Kardashians, carefully curated for fans searching for news on the family
  • Search bar available should you want to find specific news or articles

Discussion Guide

Introduce yourself & the purpose of the interview.

Hello! I am Pamela Goh, a first-year digital communications undergraduate at the Singapore Institute of Technology. Through this interview, I am hoping to find out more about your interest in the Karjenner family and how we can use digital media to create an interactive space for Kardashian fans in order to allow them to discuss and filter the latest news based on their interests while also being able to find a community. Thank you for taking time out to do this interview with me.

Personal background

  • Could you tell me about yourself?

Setting the basics, introducing the topic

  • What kind of fan would you categorise yourself as?
  • How did you get interested in the Kardashians?
  • What do you like about them? Are you genuinely interested in them or are you ‘hate-watching’ them?
  • Can you tell me the last time you read/watched news about the Kardashians?
  • Share with me how/the ways you usually keep up with Kardashian news.

Digging deeper

  • Do you enjoy reading news about people adjacent to the Kardashians (eg. partners, ex-partners, family friends etc.)?
  • Do you follow them on social media? Why/why not?
  • Which aspect of these social media platforms do you enjoy the most?
  • Do you have friends who are interested in the family too? Do you guys discuss the Kardashians often? When does this usually happen?
  • What kind of news/gossip are you the most interested in about the family? What was the latest news that made you invested in the family?
  • How do you feel when you are able to chat with others about the Kardashians?
  • Have you ever fallen out of the fandom? Tell me more.
  • How often do you engage with comments or discussion posts on the platform you use the most?
  • How have your experiences been with content moderators on the platform?
  • What has your experience been like with fellow commenters/fans?
  • What is important to you when engaging in such fandoms?
  • Is anonymity on the internet important to you?
  • Tell me what you know about these platforms (Discord, Twitter, Instagram, Tiktok, Reddit, Websites/Online Forums, Podcasts, Telegram channels). Do you enjoy these platforms (from the perspective of a fan), and what have your experiences been like?

Wrapping up

  • Is there anything else you would like to share about this topic?
  • Thank you for taking the time out for this interview.

Interview Notes

I interviewed two fans of the Kardashian family, Shaina Kang, and Muhammad Syafiq. Included below are the notes from the interview as well as the video recordings of the full interview.

Interview #1: Shaina Kang

Could you tell me about your background?

Shaina Kang, 23 years old. Just graduated from NUS Industrial Design. Chilling now (job-wise).

What kind of fan would you categorise yourself as?

Casual follower. Doesn’t search them up but follows Instagram accounts that are related to the Karjenners.

How did you get interested in the Kardashians?

Came across one of those Instagram accounts that post clips from shows, and it was a clip of Kylie and Kendall Jenner fighting. She thought that was interesting, so she watched more short clips of the Karjenner family.

What do you like about them?

Their style, the way they dress. Also likes to see how rich people live their life — as she’s just an “average citizen”.

Do you genuinely like them? Or what aspect of their lives is interesting (to you)?

She’s a fan of Kendall Jenner, she likes the way she dresses: her style and fashion sense. Even though they’re rich and are able to buy more expensive stuff, she still likes to see the way they dress. She’s more interested in the younger Karjenners (Kylie & Kendall Jenner) as they are more relatable. As well as the drama. Although it’s reality TV and partially staged, she feels like if she doesn’t get enough drama in her life, she will consume drama from others (ie Karjenners).

Can you tell me about the last time you read news about the Kardashians?

A friend sent news & updates about Kourtney Kardashian’s wedding on their Telegram group chat.

Share with me how you keep up with their news?

Either on Twitter, meme accounts on Instagram, when friends send them to her, or through the Karjenners’ social media accounts.

Do they enjoy reading news about people adjacent to the Kardashians (eg. Partners, ex-partners, family friends etc.)?

No, only the Karjenners. People that they’re involved with are not as interesting as them. Speculates that the people they are dating were chosen because they were less interesting than them so that they wouldn’t steal the limelight, “that’s why Kanye West is gone”.

Do you follow them on social media? Why/why not?

Yes, but not all of them. Only Kendall & Kylie Jenner on Instagram and Twitter, to see how they dress. The other sisters (Kourtney and Khloe) and their mom (Kris) are not as interesting, apart from Kim, because they’re not relatable enough. Kendall & Kylie are relatable because of their age (27 and 25 this year, respectively) and the clothes that they wear. To her, Kourtney and Khloe do not have good fashion sense and she doesn’t have a body type like Kim, so she can’t dress the way she does.

Which aspect of Twitter and Instagram do you enjoy the most?

Doesn’t see their tweets often, but she views their Instagram stories, to see what they’re doing at the moment. They also feel less curated, because they can’t really edit it, especially if it’s a video.

Do you have friends who are interested in the family as well? Do you guys discuss them often?

Yes, only one group of friends and they discuss on their Telegram group chat. Others only discuss the Kardashians when something big happens. For this group of friends, they give her updates if she doesn’t know anything.

Does she enjoy these discussions?

Yes. It’s funny and it’s like having a conversation with friends.

What kind of news/gossip are you the most interested in about the family?

Only interested in the individuals, not the whole family. Just Kylie, Kendall and Kim. She’s interested in any news, such as when they’re dating someone new or fell out with someone.

If presented with lots of news about the family, would she like to filter the news based on the different people in the family?

Yes, because she doesn’t want to see news about Khloe or Kourtney, unless it’s “big news”.

What was the latest news that made you invested in the family?

Kourtney being proposed to by Travis Barker and her kids cried because they weren’t there.

Would you say that you’re mainly interested in their relationship news and fashion?

Yes, as well as their own brands/companies. Also enjoys watching Architectural Digest videos of them and their houses, or Vogue videos (Get Ready With Me, Day in the Life).

What kind of content do you enjoy viewing? Print/video/podcast etc.?

Video & print. Because she’s a visual person, and reading allows her to understand the drama better especially if there are many people involved. It’s also easier to absorb.

If you were to be presented with news about the family, and it’s a long ‘saga’, would you rather read the whole thing or would you rather a summary (TLDR)?

Both. Depends on the kind of news (topic) as well as how she is feeling on that day. Would prefer if there are pictures alongside words.

How do you feel when you are able to chat with others about the Kardashians?

When she watches their show, she feels like some people associate it as being ‘trashy media’ and ‘gossip culture’, so she feels bad about herself when she reads news about them. However, when people discuss this with her, it makes her feel like she’s not the only person reading and digesting content like this; it makes her feel better about herself. It is also exciting to discuss.

Feels bad about consuming ‘gossip’ news as she feels nosy about their lives “although that’s the whole point of their family”. Not embarrassed to be a fan, just wary of overconsumption and being too involved in their lives, as they don’t know she exists. Isn’t something she would share willingly with people she meets for the first time. She would want to get to know them instead of talking about the Kardashians.

Have you ever fallen out of the fandom/lost interest in the family? Tell me more.

Kylie and Kendall aren’t in their reality show as much as Kim, Kourtney and Khloe, so that made her lose interest in the family. She reduced the time she spent watching the show. She was also busy with school, and it didn’t hold her attention so she watched other Youtube videos or other things instead of keeping up with them.

How often do you engage with comments or discussion posts on Tiktok/Instagram/Twitter?

Mainly on Tiktok. If she sees a funny video and she has a funny comment in mind, she’ll reply, or if she sees a funny comment, she’ll like it. She usually isn’t involved in discussions as she cannot be bothered — she doesn’t know who the other commenters are.

Have you had any bad experiences with people on these platforms?

Mainly Tiktok, as the people there are harsh, based on her own observations: Tiktok is a brutal place and people get bullied easily.

What has your experience been like with fellow commenters?

She commented on a Harry Potter TikTok post, and she got 90,000 likes. They’re still liking her comments after a year, and it makes her feel good, although it isn’t a big deal. She’s fueled by likes, validation, and being accepted by people.

Do likes matter to you on social media?

Depends on the content she is posting. If she’s posting something funny, she wants many likes. However, if it’s just about herself or her friends, she doesn’t care about the number of likes she gets.

If you were to engage in discussions about the Kardashians, would you say that the approval of fellow fans is important to you?

No. She’s not as concerned about what other fans feel, she doesn’t care about their opinions.

Tell me what you know about these platforms. Do you enjoy these platforms? What have your experiences been like, fandom-wise?

1. Discord

Initially, when she first downloaded it, she didn’t know how to use it. Only when she used it for school in her thesis year, where they split the channels by professors and module names did it get easier for her to understand the platform. She used it for updates and information about her thesis, as well as to call friends on Discord to do work together.

She does not engage in fan content on Discord, and feels like it is complex for a first-time user.

2. Twitter

Is a huge fanbase for celebrities — mostly Kpop and certain celebrities like Megan Thee Stallion, Charli XCX.

For American celebrities, their fanbase will be higher if they’re active on Twitter. This doesn’t apply to kpop celebrities (they aren’t usually active on Twitter) but their fanbases are very active on the platform.

However, Taylor Swift is an exception — she is not active on Twitter but her fanbase is still large on the platform. People like to use hashtags to discuss and comment on things they freak out about.

American celebrities don’t use Twitter that much unless it’s for their tour dates or reposting their Instagram posts.

For her, she uses Twitter to retweet memes or funny stuff, but doesn’t use it to follow celebrities.

3. Instagram

Follows the Kardashianreacts Instagram account which posts updates of the Kardashians in concise and summarised posts. The first post is usually something useful she needs to see, like a picture of what’s going on. The next slide will be screenshots of twitter reactions, and the caption will inform her what the picture is about.

Content on this account is fast and easy to digest. For example, if the first picture is about Kourtney — who she doesn’t like — she will just scroll past it. If it’s massive news or repetitive posts of the same picture, she’ll be intrigued by it, especially if it’s all over her explore page.

The convenience of Instagram posts is important to her.

4. Tiktok

Fan accounts will post short clips of the show, which she will watch because it’s only a minute long and it’s usually something juicy. If she’s confused about what’s going on, the comments section usually has people explaining the context. There are also discussions in the comments about the content in the clip. She’ll like the comments if they aren’t hurting anyone’s feelings.

Sometimes videos are also paparazzi pictures that people collate to use as a green screen background and discuss what’s going on (the news) in the video.

The comment section is important — it provides information that she doesn’t get from the video. People also give their points of view which she wouldn’t have considered until she reads the comments. She usually only likes comments but doesn’t reply to them, because she can’t really be bothered to engage with them.

5. Reddit

Used Reddit to search up on her thesis topic, as well as to read about the River Valley High School murder. She is not an active user as she has too many social media apps and she doesn’t have time for one more.

6. Podcast

Only listens to Youtuber David Dobrik’s podcast, which usually discusses anecdotes about him and his friends, certain topics (drama, sexuality, food), or things that they’ve experienced recently.

She’s a huge fan of him and she only listens to it either when he hasn’t posted a Youtube video for the week or when she’s bored, so that she can get her daily dose of David Dobrik from the podcast if she doesn’t get it in video form. Feels like the podcast is an extension of his vlogs. She also listens if the topic catches her eye.

In general, she enjoys unfiltered content as it’s less curated and more genuine. She will only listen to podcasts if she’s a huge fan of the host.

7. Telegram channel

Is in mainly thrifting channels where people are selling secondhand clothes, and climbing/bouldering ones where people are selling their passes for a cheaper price. She likes that people can’t talk so there’s less spam, and there’s also an admin which makes it less chaotic. She doesn’t really engage with the posts on the channel.

Which channel from the above do you think is the most appropriate one to discuss the Kardashians and their family?

Tiktok. She would read more comments on this platform compared to Instagram or Twitter. For the latter, she would only read the first 3, which are the most retweeted tweets.

Online forum (Reddit) — there’s anonymity on the platform. If you comment with your Instagram account, it’s tied to your life/identity. However, on Reddit, the purpose of it is to have discussions so she likes that better.

Is anonymity on the internet important to you?

Yes. In 5 years, she might regret something that she had said 5 years ago, so she wouldn’t want people to see her comments. Also, she doesn’t have to hold back if she wants to say something brutal or mean because people don’t know who she is.

What part of Tiktok’s comments is different from the comments on other platforms?

People on Tiktok are funnier. The comments are more brutal but that makes it more entertaining. She would laugh out loud. Comments feel unfiltered. People are creative with working around banned words on Tiktok like guns etc.

What is important to you when engaging in such fandoms?

Common consensus about the celebrity — how do people feel about that celebrity. She doesn’t like it when people disagree with her.

Walk me through how you find news about the Kardashians on a usual day.

A friend sends it on the Telegram group chat, or from Instagram on the Kardashian accounts that she follows, or videos she sees on Tiktok. For Twitter, it’s only if people are scolding them and people start talking about that.

What would make you click on news about the Kardashians?

When she doesn’t feel like doing her work, to kill time. News about them is not a priority to her.

Is there anything else you would like to share about this topic?

No.

Interview #2: Muhammad Syafiq

Could you tell me about your background?

Syafiq, 23, a final-year student in Singapore Polytechnic. He watches The Kardashians every weekend during his free time.

What kind of fan would you categorise yourself as?

Casual fan because he didn’t watch the Keeping Up With The Kardashians series, only snippets of it. However, he watches their new series, The Kardashians, he’s been catching every episode since it came out. Occasionally, the show pops up on his Tiktok For You page and he will watch that as well.

How did you get interested in the Kardashians?

Because of their lavish lifestyle that is often portrayed in the media, especially Kim Kardashian’s, because of the viral meme of her diamond earrings that fell into the sea. He also has a friend who is an “OG” fan of the Kardashians and always sends their friend group news about the Kardashians.

What do you like about them?

The lavish lifestyle, driving luxurious cars, having tons of liquid cash and it’s interesting to see her grow from what she once was into a successful businesswoman, despite her unstable love life. She still manages to have 4 kids and still maintains a good relationship with her family. He thinks that the family is admirable as they have close family ties and he is a family man; it’s very important to him: “We are nothing without family”. Believes they are setting a good example. Despite their net worth, he feels like they are humble about certain things (not everything).

Can you tell me about the last time you read news about the Kardashians?

Yesterday. One about Scott (Disick) not being invited to (Kourtney Kardashian and Travis Barker’s) wedding, and eating pasta in Italy. Another was Kourtney’s wedding in Italy on a superyacht.

Share with me how you keep up with their news?

He doesn’t go on Google searching for Kardashian news. He relies on Tiktok snippets for what’s happening around them and fan updates, as it is easily accessible and easy to digest in the form of a video. News about them that he consumes is usually in video form.

Do they enjoy reading news about people adjacent to the Kardashians (eg. Partners, ex-partners, family friends etc.)?

Only the Kardashians, as nothing about their partners interests him, apart from “Skete” (Pete Davidson). Pete is interesting as he is ‘like a child’ and you wouldn’t expect him to end up with someone like Kim Kardashian, although he did date Ariana Grande in the past. Pete is a “funny” man for Kim Kardashian.

Do you follow them on social media? Why/why not?

He does not have a main Instagram account and prefers to be private with a small circle of friends. He doesn’t follow any celebrities on social media.

Which aspect of Tiktok do you enjoy the most?

Content on the platform is endless so he can scroll for hours. He once scrolled for 5 hours non-stop and slept at 6 am. You get a mix of content — Kardashians, football, world news, food — on one platform. That saves you the hassle of going onto other platforms. He enjoys the convenience factor of Tiktok.

Does this mean that you do not actively seek out news?

Yes, he only does so if he has free mornings. He’ll read proper news on the Straits Times app while drinking coffee. However, he doesn’t usually have his mornings free so he doesn’t go seeking out news. This also applies to gossip news.

Do you have friends who are interested in the family as well? Do you guys discuss them often?

Yes. Only if something controversial pops up, like Scott not being invited to the wedding or Kim Kardashian getting together with Pete Davidson, or “Kanye just being Kanye again”. That depends on how often these topics come up.

What kind of news/gossip are you the most interested in about the family?

With whom are they having beef with currently, which family member messed up, who’s having a new baby, or who’s having a new father.

How do you feel when you are able to chat with others about the Kardashians?

As an introvert, he wouldn’t discuss it with others (strangers), but he is already doing this with his friend group. If he were extroverted, maybe discussions with strangers would excite him.

Does it mean that you enjoy reading about their news but you’re not interested in discussing it?

Yes. Celebrities are also humans and that’s how they live their lives, we’re not in any position to say anything.

Have you ever fallen out of the fandom/lost interest in the family? Tell me more.

Not really. He’s not very much into the family, so if news pops up they pop up, but he wouldn’t say he lost interest in the family.

How often do you engage with comments or discussion posts on Tiktok?

Not often. If he sees something that offends him or the comment is degrading to the content creator, he will give them a piece of his mind.

Do you use an anonymous account?

His definition of an anonymous account is when you follow many content creators and you leave comments that aren’t beneficial for either party. He has a private account — his account doesn’t have any identifiable details of him (doesn’t include his name, etc).

Have you had any bad experiences engaging with people on Tiktok?

When he left a comment about the people being recorded in a video, people did not agree with him, so he engaged in an ‘internet brawl’. To him, it was better for him to delete the comment instead of escalating the situation.

Tell me what you know about these platforms. Do you enjoy these platforms? What have your experiences been like, fandom-wise?

1. Discord

Used to use it, but now he doesn’t. it’s only useful when he’s gaming with his friends because it gives a clearer voice communication over other platforms like Skype, Google Meets, or Teams. It is designed and mainly used for gaming purposes.

2. Twitter

A very interesting place, as people tend to be more expressive. There are more users so they are able to engage with more people among their fanbase. He only uses Twitter to scroll through the feed, he doesn’t go looking for specific fandom-related accounts or tweets.

3. Instagram

“Everybody has Instagram”. It’s another accessible app like Tiktok. It’s for people to express how they are living their lives by updating their feed or using it as a private account like him to post “nonsense”. To him, Instagram is up there with Tiktok.

4. Website / online forums

“What are we, in the 90s? Come on!” nobody uses forums now, not that he knows of.

5. Reddit

Reddit is where you go to find exclusive content. Things that you won’t get away with posting because then it will be taken down or reported. He isn’t an avid user, there’s one subreddit he frequents (not porn). He still doesn’t know how Reddit works but he just scrolls through the content.

6. Podcast

He used to listen to a podcast called “OKLETSGO”, hosted by 3 guys who discuss various topics under the sun. it’s more humorous in tone instead of a serious podcast, they’ll sometimes invite guests and converse among the three of them. He doesn’t like listening to podcasts as the content will become very boring and he will have nothing to listen to. It depends, but podcasts are very dry.

7. Telegram channels

He is in a motorbike channel where he gets to discuss their bike models. Users can ask any questions they have regarding their bikes such as why can’t I start my bike or where can I get this part for my bike. He gets his answers very quickly as there are thousands of users and the people in these channels are very knowledgeable about these things. Recently, he asked a question about his bike part and he got an answer pretty instantly and that helped. He feels like there is nothing to be improved as it serves its purpose. The only purpose he joined the telegram chat was to learn more about the bike, so if he ever faced a problem he would know how to tackle it.

Which channel from the above do you think is the most appropriate one to discuss the Kardashians and their family?

Tiktok. He uses that the most.

Instagram is a close second as pictures and videos speak a thousand words compared to reading content.

Twitter/Telegram serve the same purpose as you can post links, photos and opinions. If he had to choose between these two, Twitter, as if somebody said something controversial or posted something, you would want to know who posted it (anonymity). Twitter allows you to access the profile of the person.

Walk me through how you find news about the Kardashians on a usual day.

After half an hour of scrolling through Tiktok, Kardashian content would pop up. Friends might also send news articles, or on Twitter/Instagram on their recommended page. If it’s interesting, he would dive into the news article and read up about it.

What is important to you when engaging in such fandoms?

You wouldn’t want to get into an internet brawl with anyone. He’s learnt to understand that everyone has their own opinions. Knowledge is also important — you have to be knowledgeable about something before engaging in a discussion because you don’t want to embarrass yourself.

Is anonymity on the internet important to you?

No, it’s a personal choice.

Is there anything else you would like to share about this topic?

No, he just thinks they’re a ‘bizarre’ type of family but it’s cool to see as well.

Interview Insights

1. Users enjoy short-form video content over articles or long-form content due to the convenience factor

Both mentioned Tiktok as a defining factor of how they got into the family and how they keep up with the news about the family. It is more digestible to them as well.

2. Casual fans only want to know news about the main family, not the people around them

Both were not interested in the family’s partners or family friends.

3. Relatability is an essential factor when following the Karjenner family

Things such as age, fashion sense, and shared values (family) allowed the users to relate better to the Karjenners and make them fans.

4. Casual fans do not deliberately seek out news about the family but will watch/read them if they come across it

This news can come from friends or from content that they come across on social media. It is not a priority for them to know the latest ins and outs of the family.

5. Discussion is important

It is fun and exciting to talk to fellow fans. It makes them feel like they’re not alone. They also provide context or alternative points of view that they did not think about while engaging with the content on their own.

6. There is a higher tendency to engage with fellow fans on Tiktok over other platforms

Comments are more interesting and when others acknowledge their points of view, they feel validated. The comments are also more unfiltered compared to other platforms.

7. Casual fans enjoy news/content about the family’s daily lives such as relationship status and interpersonal drama

8. Instagram and Tiktok are the platforms that casual fans use to stay abreast of news

This is because they are already on these platforms for personal use, so finding news content is not difficult. They either come across it on their explore/for you pages (on Instagram/Tiktok respectively) or are already following fan accounts on these platforms. These two platforms are more accessible than the rest. The content was also said to be easily digestible on both platforms due to their visual mediums.

9. Fans enjoy unfiltered content

It’s less curated and more genuine. It allows the family to be more relatable.

11. Telegram channels are something worth exploring

There are moderators in place which one fan mentioned made the platform and its discussions feel less cluttered. Another fan mentioned that the platform allowed for open discussions as well, giving them quick answers.

12. Podcasts are not an ideal medium for fan engagement

Content in podcasts was said to be dry and wasn’t something they’d seek out unless they ran out of content to consume by their favourite creators.

13. Anonymity is a good thing to have but isn’t that important

Users have the personal choice of being anonymous, but they acknowledged that they might regret their actions/content posted in the future should their accounts be public.

14. Good to have the option to filter content by interests

Saves them time from having to read or watch news that they are not interested in; they are able to go directly to whatever suits their needs best

Persona

PDF Link to Persona

As-is Journey Map

PDF Link for As-is Journey Map

To-Be Journey Map

The customer experience has been improved in the to-be journey map by using a single application (Telegram) to streamline all news.

Why a Telegram channel?

Telegram is a popular chatting platform that our target audience already uses. This means that it will not be a hassle for those who are interested in reading news about the Kardashians — they will not have to deliberately seek out information, they do not have to download another application and the news will be delivered to them on their phones. This increases the accessibility of news for the average Kardashian fan.

The Telegram channel also allows for a myriad of media to be posted (videos, text, pictures etc.) which would elevate the fan experience as they could click on the type of media that they would resonate with the most. Allowing for comments in the channel would also allow fans who are interested in that particular news article to participate in discussions with fellow fans, while those who aren’t would not get spammed by the discussion.

We will also be able to allow users to engage in discussion with fellow fans while being able to filter news based on what they’re interested in. Summary messages/videos of the day’s news can also be sent out at the end of the day so that those who haven’t been active on the channel can still keep up with the news about the family.

PDF Link for To-Be Journey Map

Site Map 1: Soompi

Why Soompi?

Soompi is a website that translates news articles about the Korean entertainment industry into English. It also allows for conversations between fans in their comments sections in their articles or on their forums.

According to Similarweb, the top 3 traffic sources of Soompi are:

  • Direct (50.14%)
  • Search (35.77%)
  • Social (12.85%)

As someone looking to emulate a similar idea for the Kardashians, I thought that it would be useful to study the site to see what could be implemented in our solution.

PDF Link to Site Map 1 (Soompi)

Site Map 2: Telegram Channel

In this site map, I have illustrated the user’s decisions they would take while using the Telegram channel.

PDF Link to Site Map 2: Telegram Channel

Low-fidelity Wireframes

Link to PDF

Jobs To Be Done Statements

Link to PDF

Design System

As we are utilising the platform Telegram to create this chat group, the default text of the app is Open Sans. This will be used for chat messages and text on the platform (buttons, etc). As most UI elements will be designated by Telegram with no room for customisation (forms, tables, icons, etc.), the design system will also take into account the collaterals that will be posted on the platform (i.e. videos, pictures, etc).

Link to PDF

Refining my UI Design

Before I performed user testing, I decided to refine my UI design. Although there are some limitations with the Telegram channel (I’m unable to change a lot of the in-built UI design of the platform), I decided to tweak and focus my efforts on the media that would be shared instead. Parts of the design system that will stay the same include typography, colour scheme & theme, and icon selection.

Hashtags

I decided to add #robkardashian, #scandals and #DDmonthYYYY (to be filled in with the date posted) into the previous list of hashtags. This is because Rob Kardashian, despite not being a prominent member of the family anymore, is still considered part of the siblings. This means his news is also of interest to Kardashian fans. #Scandals will be used for articles that are negatively affecting the Karjenners’ reputation. Lastly, the #DDmonthYYYY hashtag will also be added to posts so that fans who are looking for news that occurred during a specific day will be able to find them.

Below is the updated list of hashtags we will use:

#kimkardashian #kourtneykardashian #khloekardashian #robkardashian #krisjenner #kendalljenner #kyliejenner #karjennerchildren #familyfriends #video #fashion #news #scandals #breaking #rumours #brands #polls #socialmediaposts #hulushow #kuwtkshow #summary #DDmonthYYYY

Videos

Video Content

Video will be a summary of the top 5 news for the day — similar to the photo summary. Video will be narrated with captions over the news stories. This is so that users will be engaged with the video both audibly and visually.

Video Structure

  • Introduce channel name & date
  • Mention breaking news first
  • Keep it up to 5 news stories

Length of videos

Video length should be less than 3 minutes long so that the user’s attention will not wane.

Aspect ratio

As users will primarily be viewing the channel from their phones, an aspect ratio of 1080 x 1920 px will be used (vertical). This is so it will be easy to view.

Voiceover — Male or Female?

According to VoiceRealm, 66% of people prefer a female’s voiceover to a male’s. Thus, the voiceover will be done by a female.

Sample video

Photos

Photos will be posted in square format (1080 x 1080 px), as it will be easier to view and read as compared to a vertical or horizontal one.

1. Daily summary posts

I decided to change the number of news articles featured from 7 to 5, as 7 was an odd number to be at. Top 5 would also allow us to focus on the news that was truly important.

The write-up for these photos would be short and factual, and would be repeating the information that was already on the picture. The tone would have to be unbiased as the Telegram channel would need to be an unbiased source and just a news aggregator; opinions can come from the users in the comments. It would also be written in third-person, with an informational tone.

Example text below:

KARDASHIAN KONTENT NEWS FOR 31 JULY 2022:

1. Kourtney Kardashian rumoured to be ‘hiding’ baby bump in latest Instagram picture

2. Kourtney Kardashian teases new ‘business venture coming soon’

3. Delivery From Khloé Kardashian Reveals That Her Family Refers To Kourtney And Travis Barker As ‘Kravis’

4. Kim Kardashian, Pete Davidson to continue long-distance relationship amid shoot delay

5. Khloe Kardashian and mom Kris Jenner arrive to a ‘four hour’ holiday photo shoot in LA with Khloe’s daughter True, 4, and brother Rob’s 5-year-old toddler Dream

#31july2022 #kourtneykardashian #khloekardashian #kimkardashian #krisjenner #robkardashian #karjennerchildren #brands #rumours #news #summary

Hashtags should include the day’s date, so fans who want to look for specific news that happened on a certain date can search for it. Hashtags should also include the family members that are included in the top 5 articles, as well as tags for the types of news they are (eg. brand-related news, rumors, news). #Summary should also be included so those who are interested in viewing only the summary posts can search for them.

2. Picture posts for every news article

Left: Cover image with headline.

Content on the photos should be easily readable and should implement the colour scheme well, with white as its primary colour, with purple and pink elements. There should be as few words as possible — this means text/news on the photos has to be as abridged as possible for easy readability.

How many photos will I be posting for these articles?

For these articles, we should keep to a maximum of 10 photos, as users might not want to scroll through that many pictures just to read an article. 10 photos follows the style of Instagram where you are allowed to post a maximum of 10 photos as a carousel post.

Write-up

Similar to the summary posts, hashtags should include the day’s date, so fans who want to look for specific news that happened on a certain date can search for it. Hashtags should also include the family members that are included in the top 5 articles, as well as tags for the types of news they are (eg. brand-related news, rumors, news).

The write-up for these photos would be short (to be able to fit within Telegram’s 4096 character limit) and factual, and would be repeating the information that was already on the picture. The tone would have to be unbiased as the Telegram channel would need to be an unbiased source and just a news aggregator; opinions can come from the users in the comments. It would also be written in third-person, with an informational tone.

Sample text below (adapted from Insider):

The UK-based sustainability marketing firm, Yard, compiled a list of celebrities with the worst private jet CO2 emissions so far this year. Private jets generally produce more emissions per passenger than commercial flights. Yard recently published a report ranking the “biggest offenders” based on who flew the most this year by private jet using data from a Twitter account called Celebrity Jets, which imports from ADS-B Exchange, “the world’s largest public source of unfiltered flight data”.

Kim Kardashian, 41, ranked at number 7 with 57 private jet flights this year that emitted 4,268.5 tonnes of CO2, according to Yard. Her average flight time is 85.49 minutes, while one of the shorter flights was a 23-minute trip from San Diego, California, to Camarillo, California, per Yard.

#31july2022 #kimkardashian #kyliejenner #scandals #news

Standard replies

FAQ / Rules

I will be putting in FAQ/Rules section as a pinned message on the Telegram channel, to alert new members to the rules for the Telegram channel as well as what purposes the hashtags serve.

FAQ text below:

Welcome to KARDASHIAN KONTENT!

⚠️ Please read this before you send anything. ⚠️

This group chat is for Karjenner fans to keep up with the latest news, as well as communicate with like-minded fans. All other content that is unrelated to the Karjenner family is to be discussed on other relevant platforms. We would greatly appreciate it if everyone adheres to the following rules.

✔️ To search for specific posts, please use/click on the following hashtags: #kimkardashian #kourtneykardashian #khloekardashian #robkardashian #krisjenner #kendalljenner #kyliejenner #karjennerchildren #familyfriends #video #fashion #news #scandals #breaking #rumours #brands #polls #socialmediaposts #hulushow #kuwtkshow #summary

✔️ To search for news from a specific day, please search in using the following format: #DDmonthYYYY. Eg. for 31st July 2022, the hashtag would be #31july2022.

✔️ Summary posts that summarises the top 5 news articles for the day can be found via #summary, with both video and text options available.

✔️ Open discussion about the Karjenner family is allowed.

❌ No unwarranted hate towards the Karjenner family — discussions should be fair and unbiased. Users who do not adhere will be given a warning by moderators, and subsequently banned.

❌ No personal attacks towards other users. We want this to be a safe space.

❌ No spamming/reposting

❌ You will be automatically removed from the group if you happen to do any of the above.

User Testing Plan

Research Objectives

To find out if the design system used is user-friendly, and whether it allows users to read and engage with the content quickly.

Hypotheses

  1. Users will be able to search for what they are interested in via hashtags, which are intuitive.
  2. FAQ / Rules section is visible and easy enough to understand.
  3. Write-ups are short and concise enough to hold user’s attention.
  4. Picture summary is engaging enough to hold user’s attention.
  5. Article pictures are engaging enough in terms of write-up, copy and design to hold user’s attention.
  6. Summary video is of adequate length to hold user’s attention.
  7. Content of summary video is engaging in terms of design, voice over and content to hold user’s attention.
  8. Design of content (for both video and picture) is easy to view, read and is easy on the eye.

User profiles

  1. Muhammad Syafiq
  2. Shaina Kang

Both users are casual fans of the Karjenner family. Both are students or fresh graduates of university who enjoy hearing about Kardashian news from their friends or scrolling through news about the Kardashians after a long day. They both prefer having the flexibility and option of reading about news, or watching news about the Kardashians. They are also existing users of the Telegram app.

How am I conducting the tests?

Tests will be conducted remotely so that we will be able to accurately observe the users in their own environments when they would be using the Telegram channel. I will ask them to set up two cameras–one directly above their phones, and one capturing their expression. I will ask them a series of questions as they go through the Telegram Channel prototype and engage with the sample content.

I will take on the roles of moderator, note taker and observer through a video call.

Test setup

Participants were tested in 2 different scenarios and were given tasks to complete.

Scenario 1: A busy day where users do not have the time to read through all the news and have specific family members they would like to check up on.

  1. Enter the Telegram channel
  2. View FAQ
  3. Search for #summary to look for the summary messages with the top 5 news for the day.
  4. Watch summary video.
  5. Read summary write-up / picture slideshow.

Scenario 2: A relaxed day where users want and have the time to engage in all news about the Karjenner family.

  1. Enter the Telegram channel
  2. View FAQ
  3. Continue scrolling from “unread messages”, where you last left off.
  4. Read news article and its picture slideshow.
  5. Click into discussion channel to discuss about that particular news piece.
  6. Search for any specific Kardashian member with hashtag of their names.
  7. Search for genre of news you are interested in via hashtag.

Test measures

Post-task

Ease: Single Ease Question (Overall, how difficult or easy did you find this task (from a scale of 1–7)?)

Effectiveness: Task Completion Rate (Success: Completes without prompts, Partial Success: Completes with a few prompts, Failure: Unable to complete at all)

Efficiency: Efficiency Question (Overall, I’m satisfied with the amount of time it took to complete this task (from a scale of 1–7).)

Post-test

Usability: System Usability Scale Survey (From a scale of 1–5)

1. I think that I would like to use this system frequently.

2. I found the system unnecessarily complex.

3. I thought the system was easy to use.

4. I think that I would need the support of a technical person to be able to use this system.

5. I found the various functions in this system were well integrated.

6. I thought there was too much inconsistency in this system.

7. I would imagine that most people would learn to use this system very quickly.

8. I found the system very cumbersome to use.

9. I felt very confident using the system.

10. I needed to learn a lot of things before I could get going with this system.

Satisfaction: Satisfaction Question (On a scale of 1–7, how satisfied were you with this Telegram channel?)

Sample Questions (Scenario 1)

  1. What is your first impression of the summary video and/or picture slideshow?
  2. What do you like about the summary video and/or picture slideshow?
  3. Which one do you prefer and why?
  4. What could be improved or is missing?
  5. How would you see yourself use the summary video and/or picture slideshow?
  6. Were the hashtags intuitive or allow you to find what you were looking for easily? What did you like? What could be improved?
  7. What do you think about the FAQ/Rules section? What did you like? What can be improved?

Questions (Scenario 2)

  1. What is your first impression of the news picture slideshow?
  2. What do you like about the news picture slideshow?
  3. What is your first impression of the news picture slideshow write-up?
  4. What do you like about the news picture slideshow write-up?
  5. What could be improved or is missing?
  6. How would you see yourself use the news picture slideshow?
  7. Were the hashtags intuitive or allow you to find what you were looking for easily? What did you like? What could be improved?
  8. What do you think about the FAQ/Rules section? What did you like? What can be improved?

User Testing Report

Resource Booking

Scenario 1

Task 1
Ease: Average SEQ = (7+7) / 2 = 7 out of 7

Effectiveness: Success = 2; Task completion rate = 100%

Efficiency = (7+7) / 2 = 7 out of 7

Task 2

Ease: Average SEQ = (6+6) / 2 = 6 out of 7

Effectiveness: Success = 1 ; Partial Success = 1 ; Task completion rate = (1 + 0.5) / 2 = 75%

Efficiency = (6+7) / 2 = 6 out of 7

Task 3

Ease: Average SEQ = (6+7) / 2 = 6.5 out of 7

Effectiveness: Success = 1 ; Partial Success = 1 ; Task completion rate = (1 + 0.5) / 2 = 75%

Efficiency = (6+7) / 2 = 6 out of 7

Task 4

Ease: Average SEQ = (7+7) / 2 = 7 out of 7

Effectiveness: Success = 1 ; Partial Success = 1 ; Task completion rate = (1 + 0.5) / 2 = 75%

Efficiency = (6+6) / 2 = 6 out of 7

Task 5

Ease: Average SEQ = (6+7) / 2 = 6.5 out of 7

Effectiveness: Success = 2; Task completion rate = 100%

Efficiency = (6+5) / 2 = 5.5 out of 7

Post-test

Usability: System Usability Scale Survey

1. I think that I would like to use this system frequently.

2. I found the system unnecessarily complex.

3. I thought the system was easy to use.

4. I think that I would need the support of a technical person to be able to use this system.

5. I found the various functions in this system were well integrated.

6. I thought there was too much inconsistency in this system.

7. I would imagine that most people would learn to use this system very quickly.

8. I found the system very cumbersome to use.

9. I felt very confident using the system.

10. I needed to learn a lot of things before I could get going with this system.

Total score: 92

Scenario 2

Task 1
Ease: Average SEQ = (7+7) / 2 = 7 out of 7

Effectiveness: Success = 2; Task completion rate = 100%

Efficiency = (7+7) / 2 = 7 out of 7

Task 2

Ease: Average SEQ = (6+6) / 2 = 6 out of 7

Effectiveness: Success = 1 ; Partial Success = 1 ; Task completion rate = (1 + 0.5) / 2 = 75%

Efficiency = (6+7) / 2 = 6 out of 7

Task 3

Ease: Average SEQ = (7+7) / 2 = 7 out of 7

Effectiveness: Success = 2; Task completion rate = 100%

Efficiency = (7+7) / 2 = 7 out of 7

Task 4

Ease: Average SEQ = (7+7) / 2 = 7 out of 7

Effectiveness: Success = 2; Task completion rate = (1 + 1) / 2 = 100 %

Efficiency = (6+6) / 2 = 6 out of 7

Task 5

Ease: Average SEQ = (6+7) / 2 = 6.5 out of 7

Effectiveness: Success = 1; Partial Success = 0.5; Task completion rate = (1+0.5) / 2 = 75%

Efficiency = (6+6) / 2 = 6 out of 7

Task 6

Ease: Average SEQ = (6+7) / 2 = 6.5 out of 7

Effectiveness: Success = 2; Task completion rate = 100%

Efficiency = (6+6) / 2 = 6 out of 7

Task 7

Ease: Average SEQ = (6+7) / 2 = 6.5 out of 7

Effectiveness: Success = 2; Task completion rate = 100%

Efficiency = (6+6) / 2 = 6 out of 7

Post-test

Usability: System Usability Scale Survey

1. I think that I would like to use this system frequently.

2. I found the system unnecessarily complex.

3. I thought the system was easy to use.

4. I think that I would need the support of a technical person to be able to use this system.

5. I found the various functions in this system were well integrated.

6. I thought there was too much inconsistency in this system.

7. I would imagine that most people would learn to use this system very quickly.

8. I found the system very cumbersome to use.

9. I felt very confident using the system.

10. I needed to learn a lot of things before I could get going with this system.

Total score: 87

Overall Reaction

  • Liked that it was easily accessible on a platform they already used for leisure and to catch-up with friends
  • As they were already familiar with the UI of Telegram, it was not hard to navigate and interact with the functions
  • Enjoyed Telegram channel as an avenue to chat with fellow fans and keep up with news

Positives

  • Hashtags allowed them to search for specific genres and family members specifically when they were in a rush
  • Video, picture and written content gave them ample choice depending on their mood to engage with the content in different ways.
  • FAQ Section gave them an inkling of how to navigate the channel. It was intuitive enough for first-time users
  • Enjoyed the option of a discussion channel so that they could discuss with like-minded fans if their friends weren’t interested

Negatives

  • Design: White background of pictures makes things too serious and boring, to try a pale yellow (tertiary colour scheme) to have contrast and to keep things light.
  • Hashtags section was too cluttered; had to click around and explore to know what each one meant (especially the ones for genre).
  • Voiceover for video was too fast and robotic as it was generated using AI. Static images made it boring as well. Made them disinterested to watch and would rather read the write-ups.

Suggestions and Areas of Improvement

  • Daily summary posts might be too much for a casual fan who does not have much-vested interest in the family. It can be a weekly summary instead.
  • 3 minutes for the summary video is a little too long for 2 news articles. Should be bite-sized pieces or to fit in more articles into the 3-minute video.
  • 1 user found it hard to click on/find the FAQ as it is on the top of the Telegram screen. Could look into the implementation of bots who will send out direct messages to users who first join the channel.
  • Photos with plain text are boring — use more pictures to keep interest of users.
  • The voiceover was too fast. To be slower-paced, otherwise users can’t keep up.
  • To explore having a more streamlined hashtag system as current one is too complicated/confusing.
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Pamela Goh
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Pop culture enthusiast who moonlights as a first-year communications undergraduate at Singapore Institute of Technology.